@ I never teach my pupils. I only provide the conditions in which they can learn.-Albert Einstein
" We Provide All Subjects Material " AND " HOME or ONLINE TUITIONS " : AKSHARA ACADEMY : 8106607447 (Hyd).....FREE Educational Videos : https://www.youtube.com/foundation4iit
A Complete Educational Website for FREE : BIOLOGY COMPLETE MATERIAL PART 2


Life Process - Photosynthesis
1.  Reproduction helps in the survival and perpetuation of its race.
2.  Amino acids are required for the synthesis of proteins.
3.  The wavelength of visible light is 400 - 700 nm
4.  The energy present in the light rays is called Quantum
5.  The energy particles of light rays are called Photons
6.  Green light is reflected by the chlorophyll pigments.
7.  Stomata regulate the exchange of gases and loss of water vapour in plant.
8.  Iodine can be used to test the presence of starch.
9. Grana are stacks of Thylokoid membrane.
10. During photosynthesis chlorophyll molecules gets Oxydised
11. ATP and NADPH are the end products of light reactions in photosynthesis.
12. Melvin Calvin won the Nobel prize for his work on photosynthesis.
13. First stable product formed in photosynthesis is PGA
14. Examples of Electron acceptors NADP/ Cytochrome
15. The upper layer of cells in leaf is called Upper Epidermis
16. Stacks of thylakoid membranes in stroma are called Grana
17. Photosynthesis is the life process that depends on light.
18. Respiration is the process that helps in release of energy stored in carbohydrates.
19. Melvin Calvin got Nobel Prize for his studies on Dark reaction
20. Photosynthesis occurs in Chloroplast part of the cell.
21. Photosynthesis process releases O2  into the Atmosphere.
22. Green pigment is called Chlorophyll
23. The end products of Dark reaction Glucose
24. The kidney shaped cells which surround the stroma are called Guard cells
25. First stable product formed in photosynthesis is PGA
26. The external factors that help photosynthesis are Light, Co2
27. The internal factors that help photosynthesis are Water, chlorophyll
28. Carbondioxide is reduced in dark reaction.
29. Ribulose diphosphate accepts Co2 in dark reaction.
30. The volume of Co2 present in the atmosphere is 0.03%
31. Photosynthetic activity in green plants has to tested After exposing the plant to the light for 2 - 3 hours
32. Green pigment is called Chlorophyll
33. Autotrophic organisms synthesize their own food.
34. The entire series of reactions which are involved in the conversion of Co2  to glucose is called Calvin cycle
35. In electromagnetic radiation Infrared rays has greater wavelength than visible light.
36. Photosynthesis is the most important life process.
37. Oxygen is release during photosynthesis
38. Iodine can be used to test the presence of Starch
39. Plants are green because they Reflect green light.
40. Synthesis of new molecules in a cell required ATP(chemical) energy

1. Substance that undergoes respiration is called Respiratory substracts
2. Fermentation produces Ethyl alcohol and Energy
3. Inner folds of mitochondria are called Cristae
4. Inner compartment of mitochondria is called Matrix
5. Respiration in the absence of oxygen by micro organisms is called AnaerobicRespiration
6. The first stage of respiration is called Glycolysis
7. Simplest form of carbohydrates ready to undergo respiration is Glucose
8. Rate of Respiration decreases when fruits are kept in cold storage.
9. Fruit can be ripened early by keeping them in a room at a temperature between 30°C - 40°C
10. The scientist who studied the sequences of changes in citric acid cycle is Sir Hans Krebs
11. In citric acid cycle, acetyl co-A combines with a four carbon compounds Oxalo Acetic  Acid (OAA)
12. The products formed in aerobic respiration are Carbon dioxide, Water, Energy
13. In ATP, energy is stored in organic Terminal Phosphate bond
14. The addition of high energy phosphate to ADP is called Phosphorylation
15. The first phase in Glucose oxidation is Glycolysis
16. Bacteria convert pyruvic acid to Lactic Acid in the absence of oxygen.
17. Maximum rate of respiration takes place at 45°C
18. Expand ATP Adenosine Tri Phosphate
19. Conversion of glucose to pyruvic acid yields a net gain of 2ATP
20. In germinating seeds Aerobic respiration is observed.
21. Cellular respiration takes place in Mitochondria
22. The carboxylic acid formed at the end of glycolysis is Pyruvic Acid
23. The number of phosphate molecules present in ATP is 3
24. Synthesis of new molecules in a cell get energy from ____(
 25. Yeast cell convert pyruvic acid to Ethanol in the absence of oxygen. This process is called Fermentation
26. Krebs's cycle is also called Citric Acid cycle
27. The energy liberated from one ATP is 7200 calories
28. The net gains of ATP in the complete oxidation of one glucose are 38
29. The first stable compound in Krebs's cycle is Citric Acid
30. In prokaryotes Cell membrane takes care of energy produce.
31. Respiration is life process in which energy is liberated.
32. Mitochondria are also called Power House of Cells
33. The factors that control respiration are Oxygen and Temperature
34. The temperature at which respiration takes place is called Optimal Temperature
35. The gas which turns lime water milky is Carbon dioxide
36. The process in which energy stores in carbohydrates released is known as Respiration
37. Respiration takes place in the presence of Optimum temperature
38. The volume of Co2 present in the atmosphere is 0.03%

1. Respiration in Amoeba occurs by Diffusion
2. The common name of larynx is Voice box
3. The scientific name for wind pipe of man is Trachea
4. In women Ribs plays a major role in respiratory movements.
5. In frog nostrils open into Buccal cavity
6. In Earthworm haemoglobin is present in Plasma
7. Coetaneous respiration occurs in Earthworm / Frog/Salamander   
8. Coelomic fluid in earthworm comes out through Dorsal pores
9. Respiratory organs in cockroach are Trachea
10. Operculum present in Bony fish
11. The structure that acts as a lid over glottis in Epiglottis
12. The shape of cartilaginous rings that support the trachea is 'C'
13. The rate of respiration per minute in a new born baby is 32 times
14. In man Diaphragm plays a major role in respiratory movements.
15. Haemoglobin of blood transports both Oxygen and carbon dioxide
16. The respiratory organs in Animals that shows pulmonary respiration are Lungs
17. In Earthworm, Leech and Salamander respiration organ is Skin
18. Dorsal pores occur in Earthworm
19. The structural and functional units of lungs are Alveoli
20. In man Oral Cavity and Nasal Cavity are separated by Palate
21. In man, Epiglottis is present in Pharynx
22. In man larynx opens into Trachea
23. Pleura surrounds and protect the lungs in man.
24. In lungs gaseous exchange occurs in Alveoli
25. In man, air is humidified in Nasal Cavity
26. During Inspiration air enters the lungs.
27. Palate in man separates Nasal cavity from oral cavity
28. In man epiglottis covers Glottis as a lid.
29. In man, internal nerves open into Pharynx
30. Hibernation means Winter sleep.
31. In fishes Internal branched aperture apertures open into pharynx.
32. During hibernation, a frog respires through Skin
33. If the skin of frog dries up it Dies
34. Earthworm lives in Moist soil.
35. In man trachea divides as Left and right bronchioles
36. Single celled organisms take in oxygen from Water
37. Terrestrial animals take in oxygen from Air
38. In cockroach, the tracheal system opens to outside through Stigmata
39. Number of stigmata in cockroach is 10 pairs
40. The first part of wind pipe is Voice box/Larynx
41. The respiratory organs in Aquatic respiration Gills
42. Respiration through gills is called Branchial Respiration
43. Respiration through lungs is called Pulmonary Respiration
44. Respiration through skin is called Cutaneous Respiration
45. Respiratory pigment is Haemoglobin
46. External skeleton can be seen in Cockroach
47. External branchial apertures can be seen in Cartaginous fishes.
48. Respiratory rate per minute in 5 years child 26 times
49. Respiratory rate per minute in 25 year man 15 times
50. Respiratory rate per minute in 50 year man 18 times
51. Mucus glands on the skin of Earthworm and frog keep their skin moist.
52. Trachea are found in Cockroach, Butterfly
53. Photosynthesis is an anabolic process and respiration is Catabolic process.
54. Oxidative phosphorylation occurs in respiration and Photophosphorylation occurs in photosynthesis.
55. The energy released in respiration is obtained from Oxidation of glucose
56. The energy stored in photosynthesis is obtained from Sunlight

1. In unicellular organisms transport of substances occurs by Diffusion
2. The pumping device in the transport system is Heart
3. In earthworm, haemoglobin is present in Plasma of blood.
4. In frog, the chamber that lies behind the auricle is Ventricle
5. The chamber that is incompletely divided in the heart of reptiles is Ventricle
6. The heart that pumps blood to lungs is called Pulmonary heart
7. A single circuit heart is found in Fish
8. The colour of the blood in crabs and snails is Blue
9. Lymph is a part of Transport system.
10. Animal without red blood cells is Earthworm
11. In cockroach Alary muscles help in sending the blood into heart.
12. Caral veins in amphibians from Sinus venosus
13. Blood sinuses occur in Cockroach / Butterfly (Insects)
14. chambered heart present in Cockroach
15. For the cell to grow, it needs Water and Oxy-gen along with food material.
16. In course of evolution special fluids like Blood, lymph and have been developed for transport of sub-stances.
17. Blood vessels are absent in metazoan animals like insects and Mollusks
18. The hearts of megascolex connect Dorsal vessel and Ventral blood vessels vessel.
19. In megascolex, in addition to blood Coelomic fluid also transport substances.
20. From first chamber of cockroach heat arises the Head sinus
21. Head sinus of cockroach receives blood from First chamber of heart
22. Heart of cockroach present in Pericardial sinus
23. In fishes, blood from Ventricle of heart goes to gills.
24. The chambers that lie side by side in frog are Auricles
25. The man aorta that supplies blood to all parts of the body is Oxygenated blood
26. The two chambers that are in front of ventricle in the heart of frog are Auricles
27. In birds and mammals Blood is sent to lungs for oxygenation.
28. The right auricle of frog receives Deoxygenated blood blood.
29. The left auricle of frog receives blood from Oxygenated blood
30. A double circuit circulation is present in Amphibia-ns, reptiles, mammals
31. In closed type of circulation, blood flows in Blood vessels
32. In fishes the heart sends blood to gills, but in birds, reptiles and mammals it sends to Lungs and body parts
33. In cockroach the blood is White in colour.
34. The substance produced in one part of the body and taken to another part is called Hormo-nes
35. Sinus venosus is associated with Heart
36. Example for open type of circulatory system is Insects (Cockroach, Butterfly)
37. The blood vessel that gathers blood in earthworm is Dorsal blood vessel
8. The blood vessel that distributes blood in earthworm is Ventral blood vessel
39. The ventral blood vessel in earthworm is present below the elementary canal
40. Number of chambers in fish heart is 2
41. Number of chambers in frog heart is 3
42. Incompletely divided ventricle present in Garden lizard (reptiles)
43. The number of hearts in megascolex are8 pairs
44. The glands that secrete hormones are called Endocrine glands
45. The blood vessel that acts as main vein in earthworm is Dorsal blood vessel
46. The blood vessel that acts as main artery in earthworm is Ventral blood vessel
47. Branchial heart present in Fish
48. In cockroach alary muscles are in Fan shape.
49. The scientific name of earthworm is Megascolex
50. Number of hearts in birds and mammals are 4

1. Heart is protected on all sides by Rib cage and by cage on the back side.
2. Heart is covered by two layered membrane called Pericardium
3. Blood is collected from the upper parts of the body by Superior vena cava
4. Blood is collected from the lower parts of the body by Inferior vena cava
5. In man, Caval veins open into Right auricle
6. Oxygenated blood from lungs is collected by Pulmonary vein
7. The right Auricle receives deoxygenated blood from various parts of the body except the lungs
8. The largest artery in the body of man is Aorta
9. The left ventricle receives Oxygenated blood  from left auricle.
10. Pulmonary aorta arises from Rightventricle
11. From the left ventricles of man Systemic Aorta arises.
12. Left Ventricle pumps oxygenated blood to all body parts.
13. Pulmonary arteries pump deoxygenated blood to lungs.
14. Heart attack is caused by the blocking of Coronary artery
15. The normal blood pressure of man is 120 / 80
16. The contraction phase of the chambers of heart is Systole
17. The relaxation phase of the chambers of heart is Diastole
18. Haemoglobin is the most efficient carrier of Oxygen
19. In man, Pericardial fluid present in pericardium protects the heart from injury.
20. The Left auricle is smaller than right auricle.
21. Tricuspid valve is present in between Right auricle and right ven-tricle
22. Bicuspid valve is present in between Left auricle and left ventricle
23. Bicuspid valve is also called Mitral valve
24. The valves present at the entrance of pulmonary aorta in right ventricle are Pulmonary valves
25. The valves present at the entrance of systemic aorta in left ventricle are Aortic valves
26. Deoxygenated blood from the heart is taken to Lungs
27. Doctors measure blood pressure with the instrument called Sphygmomanometer
28. The number of valves present at entrance of aorta in left ventricle are 3
29. In normal blood pressure 120/80, the numerator indicates Systolic pressure.
30. In normal blood pressure 120/80, the denominator indicates Diastolic  pressure.
31. The muscles present in the heart are called Cardiac muscles
32. The upper chambers of human heart are called Auricles
33. The lower chambers of human heart are called Ventricles
34. The strands of tissue which connect the valves with the walls of ventricles are called Chordate tendinae
35. The circulation of blood between lungs and heart is called Pulmonary circuit circulation
36. The circulation of blood between heart and body parts is called Systemic circuit circulation.
37. The rate of heart beat per minute is 70-80
38. The blood vessels that collect deoxygenated blood from heart muscle are Coronary veins
39. The blood vessels that collect oxygenated blood from heart muscle are Coronary arteries
40. Human heart pumps blood in two circuits. Hence human heart is called Double circuit heart
41. Pulmonary veins carries oxygenated blood to the heart
42. The valve present in between left auricle and left ventricle is Mitral valve

1. The study of blood is called Haematology
2. The inter cellular fluid in blood is Plasma
3. The total volume of blood in adult man is 5 lit
4. Sodium oxalate or Sodium citrate prevent clotting of blood in test tube.
5. 0.9% sodium chloride solution is called Saline
6. The fluid tissue of the body is called Plasma
7. The clean fluid seen on the top of a blood clot is Serum
8. The matrix of blood is Plasma
9. The liquid part of blood is Plasma
10. Percentage of water in plasma is 85 - 90 %
11. Percentage of salts in plasma is 0.85 - 0.9 %
12. Percentage of carbon compounds in plasma is 6 - 8 %
13. Protein that helps in cloting blood in blood vessels is Heparin
14. Plasma is slightly Alkaline in nature.
15. Number of RBC in 1 ml. of blood is 4.5 - 5.5 × 106
16. Nucleus is present in RBC of animal like Camel
17. In adults, RBC are formed in Long bone marrow of long bones.
18. The production of RBC is called Erythropoiesis
19. The life span of RBC is 120 days
20. Spleen is also called "Grave yard of red blood cells".
21. RBC are red due to the presence of Haemoglobin
22. Haemoglobin of blood carries Oxygen and carbon dioxide
23. Number of WBC in 1 ml of blood is 5 - 9 × 103
24. Life span of WBC is 12 – 13 days
25. Number of lobes present in nucleus of acidophils are 2
26. 'S' shaped nucleus present in Basophils
27. Among all types of WBC Basophils are few in number.
28. Multilobed nucleus is present in Neutrophils
29. Microscopic policemen of body are Neutrophils
30. Among all types of WBC Neutrophils are more in number.
31. Smallest of all White Blood Cells is Lymphocytes
32. Lymphocytes Cells are destroyed in AIDS.
33. Biggest of all types of WBC is Monocytes
34. Kidney shaped nucleus is present in Monocytes
35. Platelet cells help in clotting of blood. (June 03, 02)
36. Porphyrin in blood is present in Haemoglobin
37. Agranulocytes and granulocytes are White blood cells cells.
38. Osmotic pressure of the blood is maintained by Albumins/Globulins
39. Esinophils / Acidophils help to reduce allergic reactions in the body.
40. Total percentage of Plasma in blood is 60%
41. A nucleus is absent in Erythrocytes (or) blood platelets
42. Two lobed nucleus is present in Eosinophils

1. Administrating blood of one person to another person through the vien is called Blood transfusion
2. In 1900, Karl Landsteiner discovered blood groups.
3. Clumping of blood cells is called Agglutination
4. Blood of one person is transfused into another through his Vein
5. Agglutination of blood is due to reactions between Antigen and antibody
6. Blood group antigens in blood are present on RBC
7. Blood group antibodies in blood are present in Plasma
8. Antibody 'B' in plasma of blood is present in person of group 'A'
9. Antibody 'A' is present in a person with blood group 'B'
10. Both 'A' and 'B' antibodies are absent in 'AB'
11. Both antigens 'A' and 'B' are absent in 'O'
12. Persons with 'AB' blood group are called Universal Recipients
13. Persons with 'O' blood group are called Universal Donors
14. A person with no antigens but with antibodies 'A' and 'B' belong to blood group 'O'
15. People between 16 to 60 years of age can donate blood.
16. A person can donate blood once in 3 to 4 months period.
17. Blood can be stored for 3 months after collection.
18. Persons who can donate blood must be free from Hepatitis , Leukaemia and AIDS diseases.
19. Persons with Rh factors are called Rh+  (Positive)
20. Persons without Rh factors are called Rh–(Negative)
21. 93% of the population will have Rh+.
22. Agglutination is seen if the blood samples of different blood groups are mixed.
23. In case of emergency, when we do not know the blood group of the recipient, we can give 'O'blood group. (Mar. 99)
24. Persons with 'AB' blood group are known as universal recipients because they can receive blood of all groups
25. Persons with 'O' blood group are known as universal donors because they can donate blood to all groups

1. Responding to changes in environment in an organism is termed as Irritability
2. Growth is a permanent increase in Size of an organism.
3. Proposal of plant growth substances was first put forward by Charles Darwin
4. The growing region of a root is Below the ti
5. Auxins in plant are synthesized at Meristems
6. IAA (Indole Acetic Acid)is a natural auxin.
7. Auxins promote root Growth
8. Auxins promotes growth and elongation of stems, roots and enlargement of many fruits.
9. Dicotyledonous weeds are destroyed bye a chemical called 2, 4-D (2,4 Dichloro phenoxy acetic acid)
10. If terminal bud of a plant is removed Lateral branches grow.
11. Terminal bud suppressing the growth of lateral buds is called Apical Dominence
12. Harmone that controls phototropism and Geotropism in plants is Auxins
13. NAA - (Napthaline acetic acid) and IBA - Indole butiric acid are used for inducing roots in cuttings.
14. Gibberellins increase Intermodal areas of a stem in plants.
15. Parthenocarpy is the term used for Seedless fruits
16. Gibberellins were extracted from fungal culture called Gibberella fujikuroi
17. Gibeerella fujikuroi cause foolish seedling disease in rice.
18. Dwarf pea plants grow tall after treatment with Gibeerellins
19. Parthenocarpy is induced in fruits like apple and pear with spray Gibberellin harmone.
20. Cell division in particular is induced by a harmone known as Cytokinin
21. Aging in leaves is delayed by Cytokinin harmone.
22. Cytokinin can prolong the life of fresh leaf crops like cabbage, spinach.
23. Fall of leaves is promoted by a harmone called Abscisic acid
24. Abscisic acid induces dormancy in buds, tubers and many seeds.
25. Shedding of leaves and fruits is due to the Abscisic acid harmone.
26. The layer between main plant and the leaf, flower (or) fruit is called Abscission layer
27. Water loss from plants is prevented by a harmone called Abscissic acid
28. Early ripening of fruits is promoted by Ethylene
29. Ethylene modifies the growth of plant by stimulating the transverse expansion of the stem.
30. If apex of coleoptile is removed and replaced the change you observe is It grows normally

1. Substances that bring about co-ordination between organs are called Hormones
2. Ducts are absent in Endocrine glands.
3. Endocrine glands discharge their secretion into Blood
4. The tissues (or) organs on which harmones act are called Target tissue/Target Organs
5. Pituitary gland is called the master gland of the body.
6. Gland that acts as a bridge between nervous and endocrine system is Pituitary gland
7. Pituitary gland gland secretes growth harmone.
8. Pituitary gland gland secretes oxytocin and vasopressin.
9. Deficiency of vasopressin causes Diabetes insipidus
10. Deficiency of growth harmone in childhood results in Dwarfism
11. Over secretion of growth harmone in childhood result in Gigantism
12. Excretion of 25 litres of urine per day is symptom of Diabetes insipidus disease.
13. The gland that is present in the neck, near trachea is Thyroid gland
14. Deficiency of iodine in food results in the enlargement of Thyroid gland gland.
15. Deficiency of thyroxide in children results in a codition called Cretinism
16. The harmone that increases the rate of metabolism and temperature is Thyroxin
17. Deficiency of iodine in food results in Simple goiter disease.
18. The harmone secreted by thyroid gland is Thyroxin
19. Paratharmone harmone controls the level of calcium and phosphates in blood and bones.
20. Excess secretion of paratharmone results in Tetany
21. The glands located on the top of kidneys are Adrenal glands
22. The outer part of adrenal gland is Cortex and inner part is medulla
23. Adrenal cortex secretes Cortisol and A ldosterone harmones.
24. Metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins and fats in body is regulated by Cortisol
25. Re-absorption of water and sodium in our body is controlled by Aldo-sterone harmone.
26. Adrenaline is secreted by Medulla of adrenal gland.
27. Adrenaline harmone controls physical and mental emotions.
28. Pancreas is a mixed gland.
29. Islets of langerhans are present in Pancreas
30. Deficiency of Insuline causes diabetes mellitus.
31. The harmone that converts glycogen to glusoce is Glucagon
32. Glucagon is secreted when the level of Glucose in blood is low.
33. Testes secretes a harmone called Testosterone
34. Development of secondary sexual characters in man is controlled by Testo-sterone
35. The condition in which male characters are not developed in males due to he absence of  testosterone is called Eunachism
36. Progesterone harmone helps in formation of placenta.
37. Progesterone harmone helps in the implantation of embryo.
38. Oxytocin harmone helps in the contraction of uterus during child birth.
39. Insuline is secreted when the level of glucose is high.
40. Progesterone harmone helps in development of uterus.
1. Nervous system can sense changes inside and outside the body through Receptors
2. Three components of nervous systems are brain, Spinal cord and nerves
3. Neurons get nutrients from supportive cells called Glial cells
4. A neuron consists of cyton, Dentrites and axon
5. The granules present in the cyton are called Nissal granules granules.
6. The parts of neuron that transmit information to cyton are Dendrites
7. The part of neuron that carries away information from cyton is Axon
8. The site where the axon and effector cell make contract is called Synapse
9. The gaps at regular intervals in the myelin sheath are nodes of Ranvier
10. Motor nerves carry impulses from . Brain (or) Spinal cord to muscles.
11. Impulses from sense organs are carried to Brain (or) spinal cord through afferent nerves.
12. Impulses from the tongue are carried to spinal cord through Sensory nerves.
13. A mixed nerve contains both Motor fibers and Sensory fibers.
14. In disease like polio Motor neurons get destroyed by virus.
15. The major centre to receive, analyze and integrate information in the body is Brain
16. The structures in the body that act as wires of a telephone are Nerves
17. The part of neuron which is generally called as nerve fiber is Axon
18. The structures of neurons that are arranged in the form of a tree with branches are Dentrites
19. Nerves that carry impulses from brain (or) spinal cord to effector organs are Motor nerves
20. The organ in the human body which acts as a telephone exchange is Spinal cord
21. Axons are covered by a sheath called Myelin sheath
22. Electric potential of a neuron is 0.055volts (or) 55 milli volts
23. Another name of cell body is Cyton (or) Perikarya
24. Neurons are bundles of several axons.
25. The system that can sense changes both inside and outside the body is Nervous system

1. The three divisions of nervous system are Peripheral nervous system, autonomous nervous system and __________________________ nervous system.
2. Brain and Spinal cord are the parts of central nervous system.
3. The divisions of autonomous nervous system are Sympath-etic and parasympathetic nervous system
4. Spinal cord and brain have neurons and Glial cells.
5. The outer layers of brain appear grey because of the presence of Grey matter
6. The white matter of brain has Myelinated axons hence it appear white.
7. In spinal cord White matter is on the surface and grey matter is in deeper layers.
8. The brain is covered by 3 membranes. The outer one is Duramatter the middle on is archonoid membrane the innermost on in Pia matter
9. In brain Cerebrospinal fluid is present between outer and middle membrane.
10. Nutrients are provided to the cells of the brain by Cerebrospinal fluid.
11. Brain in man is present in a boney case called Cranium
12. Forebrain is also called as Cerebrum
13. The largest part of the brain is Cerebrum
14. Peripheral nervous system consists of Cranial and spinal nerves.
15. The grey outer part of cerebrum is called Cerebral cortex
16. Each half of cerebrum is called Cerebral hemisphere
17. The ridges on cerebral cortex are called Gyri and the grooves called Sulci
18. Gyri and Sulci are present on Cerebral cortex.
19. The functions of the left side of the body are controlled by the Right cerebral hemisphere.
20. The functions of the right side of the body are controlled by the Left cerebral hemisphere.
21. Parts of the brain below cerebral hemi sphere is together called Diencephal-on
22. The part of the brain that continues as spinal cord through vertebral column is Medulla oblongata
23. Spinal cord passes through Vertebral Col-umn and protected by it.
24. The cranial nerve that controls the heart beat is called Vagus nerve.
25. All the spinal nerves are mixed as they contain both Sensory fibers and motor fibers.
26. Motor nerve fibers originate from Vent-ral horn of Spinal cord
27. From dorsal Horn of spinal cord Sensory nerve fibers originate.
28. The surface area of the cerebrum is increased by Gyri
29. The highest centre of brain that controls several functions of the body is Cerebrum
30. The portion of the brain that connects fore and mid brains Diencephalon
31. The structure that passes through vertebral column and controls reflex actions is Spinal cord
32. The substance that appears as 'H' in a transverse section of spinal cord is Grey matter
33. The number of pairs of spinal nerves in man is 31 pairs
34. The number of pairs of cranial nerves in man is 12 pairs
35. The total number of pairs of peripheral nerves in man is 43 pairs
36. All the spinal nerves are Mixed nerves
37. Brain stem consists of Pons varoli and Medulla oblongata
38. Cerebellum is a part of Hind brain
39. Diencephalon portion of brain has centers that control emotions like anger, pain.
40. Pituitary gland is attached to hypothalamus by a stalk.
41. Centers for regulating temperature, hunger, thrist and emotions are present in Hypothalam-us
42. Voluntary movements of the body are controlled by Cerebellum
43. Cerebellum controls movements, posture and equilibrium of the body.
44. Medulla oblongat controls the vital functions of the body such as respiration, heartbeat, and blood pressure.

1. New characters are seen in offspring in sexual reproduction due to Chromosomal recombination.
2. Production (or) fusion of gamets does not take place in Asexual kind of reproduction.
3. In asexual reproduction of fungi, a large number of Spores are formed in special structures.
4. Chrysanthemum propagates often by means of Suckers
5. Buds in Bryophyllum are known as Epiphyllous buds.
6. In layering, stems that form roots are still attached to Parent plants.
7. In grafting, the union occurs through formation of New Tissue between the two grafts.
8. The ability of plant cell to give rise to a whole plant is called Totipotency
9. Technique of tissue culture is practised under Aseptic Seterilised conditions to be free from ontaminating agents.
10. Haploid plants are obtained commonly by introducing Pollen grains in culture media.
11. New characters seen in the offspring which are not present in either of the parents is due to Recombination of chromosomes
12. Sexual Reproduction reproduction mainly involves formation of gametes.
13. In stem cuttings, a slanting cut is made in the stem Below the mode
14. In layering, girdle is done around the base of the stem to Decrease downward movement of food
15. Vegetative propagation is preferred to multiplication by ornamental and horticulture plants.
16. Building is the most common type of asexual reproduction in yeast.
17. Curry leaf plant is propagated by Root buds
18. In Aspergillus spores are produced on the conollium.
19. Bacteria/ Euglena reproduce by binary fission.
20. Potato is modified Underground stem
21. In Carrot root cuttings are used for vegetative propagation.
22. The ability of an organism to produce a new generation of individuals of the same species
is called Reproduction
23. In fungi the most common type of asexual reproduction is Sporulation
24. Node is the place where leaf arises on the stem.
25. Bud at the tip of stem is called Apical bud
26. Buds which helps in growth of the plant are Vegetative buds
27. Buds which give rise to flowers are called Floral buds
28. Vegetative propagation in potato occurs through Eyes
29. Haberlandt noticed that plat cells can be grown in synthetic media.
30. The portion of the plant that is taken from the desired plat is called Explant
31. Unorganised mass of tissue formed from explant is called Callus
32. Haploid plants can be developed through tissue culture by culturing Pollen grains/ haploid cells
33. Haploid plants through tissue culture were developed by Shipra guha and Satish Maheshwari
34. Growing embryos in culture media that do not develop inside the ovary is called Embryo rescue
35. Embryo like structures formed in tissue culture are called Embryoid

1. In order to have genetic variation in the offspring, plants commonly adopt Sexual
2. Reduction in chromosome number takes place in Reproductive cells of a plant.
3. Floral parts arise on a swollen part of pedicel known as Thalamus
4. The third whorl of a flower is composed of Stamens
5. The third whorl of stamens in a flower is known as Androecium
6. Inside an another lobe Pollen mother cells under go reduction division.
7. The diploid cell inside the nucleus that undergoes meiosis to give rise to embryosac is
known as Mega-spore mother cell
8. Fertilization is defined as the fusion of Male with female gamete
9. The first cell formed after fusion of male gamete with egg is called Zygote
10. The '3n' nucleus is formed from fusion of Secondary nucleus with male nucleus inside embryosac.
11. Carpels are present in Pistil
12. The most essential floral organs required for sexual reproduction are Gynoecim and
13. The cushion like part in the ovary where ovules arise is called Placenta
14. At the time of fertilization diploid condition in embryosac is seen in the Secondary nucleus
15. The first diploid condition in embryosac after fertilization is seen in Zygote
16. Endosperm nucleus forms from the fusion of male gamete with Secondary nucleus
17. The parts of the flower which are still useful after fertilization are Ovary, ovule
18. Root part is represented in mature embryo by Radicle
19. The study of pollengrains is called Palynology
20. The Basel part of the ovule where the two integuments arise is known as Chalaza
21. Endospermic seeds are seen Zea maize, paddy, castor plants.
22. Non-Endospermic seeds are seen Bean, Pea,Bengalgre Plants.
23. The Stalk of the flower is Pedicel
24. Flower with pedicel is called Pedicellate
25. Flower without pedicel is called Sessile
26. The tissue enclosed inside the ovule is Nucleus
27. Synergis cells direct the growth of pollen type towards the egg.
28. The condition of endosperm is Triploid (3n)
29. After fertilization Ovary is converted into fruit and Ovule into seed.
30. The unique feature of flowering plants is Double fertilization

1. Male reproductive system consist of testis.
2. Male reproductive harmone secreted by testes is Testosterone.
3. Semiferous tubules occur in testes.
4. The epithelial cells lining the somniferous tubules is called Germinal epithelium.
5. Spermatozoa from seminiferous tubules move into Vasa efferentia.
6. Acrosome of spermatozoan helps in Reproduction
7. Spermatozoa are temporarly stored in Epididymis
8. Accessory glands of human male reproductive system are Prostate, se-minal vesicles and Cowpers gland
9. Mitochon-dria provides energy for movement of spermatozoa.
10. Sperms live for a period of 24   to 72  hours in the female reproductive system.
11. Ovarian follicles present in ovary.
12. Ovum is formed from a cell called Primary oocyte.
13. Ruptured follicle is called Carpus luteum
14. Corpus luteum secrets Oestrogen and Progesterone hormones.
15. Follicle Stimulating Harmone (FSH) is secreted by Pituitary gland
16. Leutinising hormone is secreted by Pituitary gland
17. After release from the follicle the ovum enters Fallopian tube
18. Number of ova released at a time in female human being is 1
19. Formation of ovum from graffian follicle is called Ovulati-on
20. The cyclic changes that ovum in the female reproductive system for every 28 to 30 days is
called Menstrualcycle
21. Harmones that control menstrual cycle are secreted by Pituitary gland and ovaries
22. During the Proliferative phase of menstrual cycle the follicle ruptures and releases the ovum
23. Menstrual cycle occurs once in every 28 - 30 days days.
24. Foetus is attached to the uterine wall by Placenta
25. From the third month of pregnancy the embryo is called Foetus
26. During the implantation, the embryo gets attached to the wall of Uterus
27. During the development of human embryo cells differentiate into layers called Ectoderm, endoderm and mesoderm
28. The zygote divides by Mitosis and increases the number of cells.
29. Development of follicle in stimulated by Follicle stimulating harmone harmone.
30. Embryo is protected from external shocks by Amniotic fluid
31. The sex of the embryo is determined by 6th week of pregnancy.
32. The placenta is formed by 12th week of pregnancy.
33. The gestation period of pregnant woman is 40 weeks
34. Child Marriage Restraint Act is introduced in the year 1978
35. The process of attachment of the blastcyst to the walls of the uterus is called Implantation
1. Modern disease which took over 3 million lives is AIDS
2. Children with HIV-AIDS must be allowed to live a Normal life.
3. HIV belongs to Ritroviridae family.
4. HIV belongs to Lentivirus class.
5. HIV is discovered by Luc Montagnaier in 1983 at Paris and by Robert Gallo of USA in 1984.
6. AIDS is caused by Virus
7. HIV is spread through Blood, Semen and Vaginal fluids of the infected person.
8. HIV is Human blood borne organism.
9. A person with HIV infection may not shown symptoms of Infection immediately.
10. HIV can be detected through Blood test.
11. Unprotected sex means indulging in sexual act without using Condom
12. The late stage of HIV infection is AIDS stage
13. A person can be infected with HIV and not know that he has it.
14. Spread of STDs and AIDS is very closely linked.
15. HIV is not spread by Mosquitoes bite.
16. The admission of a HIV infected child in a school should be along with Other normal child
17. The first AIDS patient was detected in India in 1986
18. The number of HIV infected people in India up to 2003 is 40 lakhs
19. The number of HIV infected people in A.P. up to 2003 is 4 lakhs
20. The size of HIV is 120 nm (10-9m )
21. The shape of HIV is Icosahedral shaped
22. The 3 tests for detecting HIV are ELISA, Westron blot test, PCR tests
23. The first AIDS case was detected in India in Chennai area.
24. The enzyme is responsible for the unique nature of HIV is Reverse Transcriptase
25. HIV stands for Human Immune Deficiency Virus
26. AIDS stands Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome
27. AIDS is transmitted by HIV
28. The period during which there is virus in the blood but no antibodies is called the Window period period.
29. 91 percentage of infections spread through unprotected sexual relations.
30. Adjusting to a given situation refers to Copying skills.
31. A person who talks freely has Communi-cation skills skills.
32. One who can maintain healthy relationship with friends has Build caning relationships skills.
33. The skills needed to take right decision is Decision making skill
34. The skill needed to freely expressing their views, fears, doubts, anxiety etc
is Called as Communic-ation skill
35. There is no medicine for HIV Prevention is the only cure for HIV.

1. The chemical substances required for energy, growth and body building are called Nutrients
2. Vitamins and minerals are required in small amounts. So they are called Micro nutrients
3. Nutrition is the procurement of all Nutrients required for the body.
4. Carbohydrates and sodium are Macro nutrients nutrients.
5. Iron and fluorine are Micro nutrients nutrients.
6. Rice is rich Carbohydrates and poor in proteins.
7. Carbohydrates contain Carbon hydrogen and Oxygen
8. Cellulose is one kind of Carbohydrates
9. Milk sugar is called Lactose
10. Cane sugar is called Sucrose
11. Animal starch is known as Glycogen
12. Amylase hydrolysis Starch into ____
13. Cellulose helps in the smooth movement of the food in alimentary canal.
14. The carbohydrate that is stored in the liver is called Glycogen
15. The energy released by 1 gram of glucose is . 4 Kilo calories
16. Amino acids are units of Proteins
17. At 20°C fat remains as Solid
18. Vanaspati is prepared from Unsaturated fatty acids.
19. There are 24 different amino acids in nature.
20. Histidine is essential amino acid in children but non-essential in adults.
21. Meat, milk, eggs is biologically complete proteins.
22. Vegetables, rice fruits is biologically incomplete proteins.
23. Linoleic acid and Linolenic acid are essential fatty acids.
24. One gram of fat gives 9.45 kilo calories of energy.
25. There are more than 50 mineral nutrients in our body.
26. Sodium is the major cation in the extra cellular fluids of the body.
27. Potassium is the major cation in protoplasm of cell.
28. Chloride is the major Anion in our body.
29. Potassium is required for stimulation of nervous and osmotic balance in our body.
30. Calcium forms 1.5 to 2percentage of the body weight in an adult human being.
31. We required about 400 - 500milligrams of calcium per day.
32. Calcium  is essential for the formation of boxes, teeth, coagulation of blood and production of milk in casting females.
33. Deficiency of Iron causes Anaemia
34. Deficiency o Iodine causes Hypothyroidism simple goitre
35. 60 - 70percentage of iron is present in blood.
36. Iodine is essential for production thyroid gland harmone.
37. Bone deformities occur due to the excessive intake of Fluoride
38. Excessive intake of fluorine results in Fluorosis
39. Fats are made up of Fatty acids and glycerol
40. Water is universal solvent.

1. Taking food deficient in one (or) more Nutrients is called malnutrition.
2. The effect of malnutrition depends on Age and health status of the individual.
3. In adults, when stored carbohydrates and Fats are used up the body generates energy from proteins
4. Children don't have in their body sufficient reserves of Carbohydrates and fats
5. Malnutrition in pregnant women also affects the health of the Child
6. Children gives less proteins in their food suffer from Protein malnutrition.
7. Kwashiorkor is caused due to the deficiency of Proteins
8. The African word Kwashiorkor means Displaced child
9. Over eating and excess intake of energy results in Obesity
10. When more than 20% of the body weight is due to fat, the person suffers from Obesity
11. Recent studies have shown the obesity is Genetic
12. In the body excess of fat is stored in Adipose tissue
13. The story of vitamins started in 18th century
14. Sir H.G. Hopkins discovered a substance required for growth in Milk
15. Sir H.G. Hopkins called a substance required for growth as Accessory Factor
16. The name vitamin was given by Funk
17. Vitamin B1 is also called Thiamine
18. Riboflavin is the chemical name of vitamin B2
19. Deficiency of Thiamine causes Beri - Beri
20. Glossitis is caused by deficiency of vitamin B2
21. When rice is polished (or) repeatedly washed B1(Thiamine) vitamin is lost from it.
22. Sailors of Japan knew that eating of Polished rice causes beri-beri.
23. Chemical name of vitamin B3 is Niacin / Nicotinic Acid
24. Deficiency of vitamin B3 causes Pellagra
25. Chemical name of vitamin B6  Pyridoxine
26. Deficiency of Pyridoxine result in fits in children.
27. Pernecious Anaemia caused due to deficiency of vitamin B12
28. Cyanocobalamine is the name of vitamin B12
29. The vitamin that plays an important role in the metabolism of nucleic acids is Folic Acid
30. Deficiency of Pantothenic Acid results in burning of feet.
31. Deficiency of Biotine results in muscle pains, nervous disorder, fatigue.
32. Chemical name of vitamin 'C' is Ascorbic Acid
33. Deficiency of vitamin 'C' causes Scurvy
34. The vitamin required for the formation of collagen is Vitamin C
35. The vitamin that helps in the healing of wounds and fractures of bones is Vitamin C
36. Vitamin C helps in the absorption and storage of Iron
37. The vitamin that is highly sensitive to heat is Vitamin C
38. Chemical name of vitamin 'A' is Retinol
39. Vitamin A is required for the production of pigments such as rhodopsin and idopsin.
40. In plant foods vitamin 'A' is present in the form of a compound called Carotene
41. Night blindness is caused due to deficiency of Vitamin A
42. Xeropthalmia is a disease of Eyes
43. A vitamin is stored 6 to 9 months in our body.
44. Chemical name of vitamin-D is Calciferol
45. D vitamin helps in absorption of calcium and phosphorus.
46. Sunlight converts Cholesterol  present in foods in the body into vitamin D.
47. Deficiency of vitamin-D causes Rickets in children.
48. Chemical name of vitamin-E is Tocoferol
49. The vitamin that prevents sterility in males is vitamin E
50. Chemical name of vitamin K is Phylloquinone
51. The vitamin required for coagulation of blood is Vitamin K
52. Vitamins are not synthesized in the body. So they are called Essential nutrients
53. The vitamins which are synthesized in human intestine by bacteria are Vitamin K, Cyanocobalamine
54. In adults, Vitamin D deficiency weakens the bones and breaks.
55. Deficiency of E  vitamin results in abortion in females.

1. Fertile soil of earth crust that helps growth of plants
2. Water shed management is most efficient in places where agriculture depends only on rain.
3. The rain water that falls on higher areas like hillocks is channelized towards the neighbouring low lying areas and store there. This is called Water shed
4. Grasslands function as carbon sinks.
5. The rainfall at a particular place is measured by Rain gauge
6. 70 percentage of sea water present on earth
7. 3.5 percentage of salts present in sea water.
8. Forests that grow near the sea shores are called Mangrooves
9. Coral reefs are made up by Calcium carbonate
10. The oldest and  biggest water ecosystem is Sea
11. Dark place (Aphotic region) is present below a depth of 200 meters in sea.
12. Among the plants and animals on the earth Coral reefs are the most ancient.
13. The coral reefs turn white due to Pollution
14. If litmus turns blue, in a mixture of soil and water, then the soil is Alkaline
15. If litmus turns red, in a mixture of soil and water, then the soil is Acidic
16. Bacillus thruingiens-is bacteria that eat away the insects and pests.
17. Rhizobium (or) Brady Rhizobium biofertilizer gives nourishment to plants that yield pulses.
18. Azospirillum, Azotobacter and Azolla gives nourishment to plants that yield Grains
19. Thibacillus, bacillus, and Asphargillus provide Phosphorous and Nitrogen to plants in the form of nutrients.
20. Growing trees along with agriculture in the farm is called Agro forestry
21. Growing different kinds of trees along the earthy bunds in fields is called Agro forestry
22. Man made forests are called Social forests
23. Protection of plants and animals by taking them away from their natural habitat to a place
where such is created artificially is called Exsitu protection
24. Protection of plants and animals in their natural habitat is called Insitu protection
25. Dodo bird was killed for its meat had completely vanished.
26. Stealthy acquisition of germplasm of plants and animals available in other places and
countries and establishing proprietary rights over them is called Biopiracy
27. Wild life protection act was passed in the year 1972

1. Burning of rubber tyres, plastic produces carcinogens like Dioxins and furans
2. Chemical fertilizers and pesticides used in fields kill useful Bacteria and destroy the micro nutrients in soil that support plants.
3. Radiation is released from X-rays and cellular phones.
4. Human ear can hear sounds up to 50 - 60 decibels
5. Our ear drum is affected if noise pollution goes beyond 90 decibels
6. The Radioactivity produced by atomic reactions is dangerous.
7. Sound pollution is invisible but quite harmful.
8. The radioactive rays cause changes in Genes leading to several ailments.
9. The spillage of oils and fuels by accident creates a layer of oil over the surface of the sea water is called Oil spill
10. 80 percentage of diseases, we get from water.
11. Fluoride in water deforms the teeth and bones.
1. The percentage of forest covers 19% of the land.
2. The world population has grown beyond 600crores.
3. Oceans are the origin for natural resources.
4. Carbon dioxide is responsible for global warming.
5. Examples for non-renewable resources are Coal, Petroleum
6. Non-renewable resources are also called Non-conventional reso-urces
7. Renewable resources does not oliminish even we use excessively.
8. Jean Baptiste Fourier scientist first spoke about green house effect.
9. Carbon dioxide, Nitrogen oxide, Chlorofluro carbons, and hydrocarbons also called asGreen house gases
10. When fossil fuel is burnt Carbon dioxide is released.
11. Indiscriminately using chemical fertilizers and pesticides release Chloroflurocarbons and methane gases.
12. The air that covers the earth is called Atmosphe-re
13. Troposphere reaches up to 12kms above the earth's surface.
14. Stratosphere reaches up to 45 kms above the earth's surface.
15. Misosphere reaches upto 80 kms above the earth's surface.
16. Ionosphere reaches upto 400 kms above the earth's surface.
17. The symbol of ozone is O3
18. Ozone is Light green in colour.
19. Ozone layer functions as a shield to the biosphere.
20. Ozone layer stops the dangerous ultra-violet rays of the sun and protects the sun.
21. Ozone layer is damaged by Chlorofluro carbons(CFC)
22. Person who spoke first about acid rains Rober Endurs
23. The pH value of acid rain water ranges from 1.5 to 5.0
24. The big waves created in the sea because of the eruption of volcanoes are called Tsunami
25. The waves in tsunami travel at a speed of 500-1000km km per hour.
26. Due to EL Nino natural calamity several countries in Africa and South - East Asia suffer from scanty rainfall, drought and famines.
27. Historical monuments are damaged by Acid rains.
28. Ozone layer is present in Strato sphere.
29. La Nina causes heavy downpour washing away villages and cities.
30. When coastal mangroves are destroyed natural calamities like Tsunami havoc on land.

1. Wet waste and fallen leaves put in pit and covered with soil. It gradually turns into Compost
2. Environment - Friendly fuel is CNG
3. Compact fluorescent lamps are used to minimize electricity consumption
4. 33 percentage of plants should be there in the total available space in the school campus.
5. Look for ISI  label before you buy chocolates, and Biscuits.
6. Look for FPO label before you buy pickles, fruit Juice and papads.
7. Look for Agmark label before you buy oils, ghee and dalda.
8. In 1974water pollution control act was introduced.
9. In 1981air pollution control act was introduced.
10. Sunderlal Bahuguna  infused life to chipko movement.
11. Chipko movement started to protect forests.
12. Delhi is the only city in the world, where vehicles are playing on CNG.
13. The full form of CNG is Compressed Natural Gas
14. In 2004a new environmental policy was drafted.